## Strong equality between the Roman domination and independent Roman domination numbers in trees

 Mustapha Chellali LAMDA-RO, Department of Mathematics University of Blida B.P. 270, Blida, Algeria Nader Jafari Rad Department of Mathematics, Shahrood University of Technology Shahrood, Iran and School of Mathematics Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5746, Tehran, Iran

## Abstract

A Roman dominating function (RDF) on a graph G = (V,E) is a function f:V →{0,1,2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u) = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v) = 2. The weight of an RDF is the value f(V(G)) = ∑u ∈ V(G)f(u). An RDF f in a graph G is independent if no two vertices assigned positive values are adjacent. The Roman domination number γR(G) (respectively, the independent Roman domination number iR(G)) is the minimum weight of an RDF (respectively, independent RDF) on G.  We say that  γR(G) strongly equals iR(G), denoted by γR(G) ≡ iR(G), if every RDF on G of minimum weight is independent. In this paper we provide a constructive characterization of trees T with γR(T) ≡ iR(T).

Keywords: Roman domination, independent Roman domination, strong equality, trees

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: 05C69.

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